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Requirements for an abstract

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An abstract – a summary of a scientific problem, the results of scientific research, one of the interpretation forms of the primary material or of several sources. The abstract, in contrast to a conspectus, is a new copyright text. Novelty implies a new statement of a question on the basis of classification, generalization, analysis or synthesis of one or several sources. Abstracting involves a presentation of a question on the basis of classification, synthesis, analysis or synthesis of one or more sources.

An abstract – a scientific work, because it contains elements of scientific research. In this regard, the following requirements should be imposed to its execution (as to a scientific work ):

  • - informative presentation;
  • - fairness, undistorted recording of all the primary text provisions;
  • - accuracy of information transfer;
  • - completeness of the content main elements representation;
  • - availability of an abstract text perception both in content and in form;
  • - adherence to a single style;
  • - correctness in a material evaluation;
  • - presentation in logical sequence;
  • - use of precise, literary language.


An Abstract Structure

  1. Introduction
  2. Main part (body of the paper)
  3. Conclusion
  4. List of Reference Links
  5. Annex (optional)


Relevance of an abstract topic, its theoretical and practical significance, the topic’s scientific elaboration degree and presence of various approaches to its solution should be justified in the introduction.

It is very essential to formulate a goal (or several goals) clearly, as well as the tasks that are to be solved. The introduction should also contain a brief review of the studied literature, an analysis of strengths and weaknesses of one or another source


Main part

The main part of an abstract contains the material selected for consideration of the chosen problem. In this part, an author of the abstract essay solves the problems posed in the introduction. The main part should include development of the scientific ideas about the problem. It is advisable to show connection of the problem with the current reality. In addition, it should contain the author’s personal opinion and his own independently formulated conclusions based on relevant facts..

The main part can be divided into paragraphs (sections) which should be arranged sequentially, logically.

It is necessary to pay attention to the consistency of the material presentation, to the connection between paragraphs (sections) and parts of the work. Conclusions are to be made in each paragraph and chapter.


The conclusion sums up the work.

It should contain the author’s key conclusions to solve the problems posed in the main part of the abstract. The conclusion may contain suggestions for further scientific development of the issue.


General requirements for the design of an abstract

Registration of an abstract is subjected to certain requirements.

An abstract is performed on standard sheets of writing paper (A 4 format) in a computerized version. Exact volume of an abstract depends on the topic and the number of sources worked out as well as on the objectives that the author poses before him, but must be at least 25 pages of text typed in Time New Roman, font size 14, line spacing is exactly 18 pt.

A text is placed on one side of a sheet with the obligatory selection of fields (the left margin of the leaf is 30 mm, the right is 10 mm, the top and bottom is 15 mm) and the ordinal numbering of the sheets.

Page numbering is placed in the middle of the top margin of a sheet. The title page of an abstract is considered to be the first sheet, the content - the second. On these pages the numbering is not put. It is counted from the number "3" (corresponds to the first sheet of the "Introduction"). Each new section of the abstract is printed from a new page.

Headings and subheadings are separated from the main text at the top and the bottom by three intervals.

Title page

The title page is the first page of the abstract which should contain basic information about the paper and its author.

The upper part of the sheet indicates the name of the educational institution in full, without abbreviations (Annex 1).

In the center - the topic of the abstract.

Below the topic on the right is the surname, name, patronymic of the author, the name of the laboratory of the State Institution "Scientific and Practical Center of the State Forensic Examination Committee of the Republic of Belarus" to which the abstract is submitted, the code and the name of the applicant’s specialty.

At the bottom of the title page should be indicated the city and the year when the abstract was written.

The content

The content follows the title page of the abstract. It indicates the main parts of the abstract (introduction, main part, conclusion, list of references) with indication of the relevant pages.

Sections are enumerated in Arabic figures. If the "Content" sections are divided into subsections, then their numbering is composed of the section number and of the subsection number, separated by a dot. For example: section 1 "Preparation and content of the abstract", subsection 1.1. "Theme selection".

The introduction

Introduction is the introductory part of an abstract, it is placed before the main text. Introduction usually constitutes 2-3 pages of a text.

Main part (informative)

The main text is presented in arbitrary format. In the course of the material presentation the author may refer to other authors, various sources (documents, maps, tables, charts, etc.), which should be located after the text. The total volume of the main part is 15-20 pages.


Conclusion - part of the abstract, in which findings are formulated. It should be clear and concise. By volume it should not exceed the introduction.


The annex is a part of the abstract which has an additional reference value necessary for a more complete coverage of the topic. A form and content of an application are diverse: tables, charts, graphs, drawings, maps, photographs, samples, etc.

Application numbering is placed in the upper right corner above the application title, next to the word “application” (for example, Annex 1).

List of Reference Links

The list construction order is determined by an author himself: either listing in alphabetical order (by the first letters of the authors’ names or by the collections’ titles), or in the order of mentioning in the abstract text. One should also specify the place of publication, year of publication.


Annex 1

State Institution "Scientific and Practical Center

of the State Forensic Examination Committee

of the Republic of Belarus»













On the topic: ______________________________________










                                                                                           (Full Name: last name, first name, patronymic)




                                                                             (code, specialty name)













Minsk , 2017